Tuesday, August 30, 2011

Ika--115 Taon ng Labanan sa San Juan Del Monte/Pinaglabanan (with Timeline of the Himagsikan)

Agosto 29-30, 1896 - Pagsiklab ng Himagsikang Pilipino


Ang Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK), itinatag upang pakawalan ang Inang Bayan mula sa tanikala ng pananakop ng Kastila ay naging isang pamahalaang panghihimagsikan, may pwersang Katipunang sandatahang lakas.

In that month of 1896, a Filipino's treachery led to the discovery of Katipunan and on the 30th, the bloody, virtually hand-to-hand (two-part) Battle of Pinaglabanan marked the first major battle of the Philippine Revolution.


The Battles of El Polvorin & El Deposito (Pinaglabanan/San Juan del Monte)

The night of August 29, Bonifacio and Jacinto led the first group of Katipuneros in marching towards El Polvorin, a Spanish powder magazine located in in San Juan del Monte. By midnight, a smaller second group of around 100 Katipunan soldiers, two of whom were women, under the command of Sancho Valenzuela departed from Santa Mesa, Manila and arrived at Polvorin. Around 4:00 in morning of the following day, Bonifacio launched a surprise attack. Despite being generally armed only with with bolo knives,a few guns, bamboo spears and amulets or anting-antings, this Katipunan army force successfully captured the magazine that was guarded by colonial Spanish infantry and artillerymen. The Spanish commander and some of the artillerymen were killed, prompting a retreat of the remaining 100 or so enemy forces towards the nearby Manila water works deposit office building, the El Deposito.

However, before noon, the 73rd "Jolo" Regiment made up of Filipino soldiers under the Spanish command of Gen. Bernardo Echaluce y Jauregui arrived at San Juan del Monte as reinforcement to suppress the rebellion. Thus, Bonifacio's ill-equipped forces were now to face the 73rd Regiment, armed with Remington Rolling-block rifles, as the case with majority of native Filipino conscripts in the Spanish colonial army, while the Spanish troops carried German Mauser rifles.

The Katipuneros then regrouped at Santa Mesa, and decided to courageously engage the arriving Spanish reinforcements and the enemy forces in El Deposito. The engagement started as early as It was a bloody sight, a one-sided battled, with the mostly bolo-armed Katipunero heroically soldiers fighting the enemy forces in the gallant bid to liberate the country. It was a resounding, bloody defeat but contrary to exaggerated claims, several hundreds were still left standing and able to escape. Around 150 of the Katipunero soldiers perished while some 200 were captured. Bonifaco, the first revolutionary President, was forced to evacuate and flee towards Pasig River.

While August 30, 1896 concluded with many Katipunero soldiers dead and the rest fleeing, it would be a pyrrhic victory for the Spaniards. If failed to smother the Filipino's revolutionary spirit as the blood let at what is now Pinaglabanan merely nourished the determination of the people to carry on the struggle for freedom. News of the battles awakened the revolutionary spirit of the inhabitants of nearby towns of Santa Mesa, San Pedro de Makati, Caloocan, Pandacan, Pateros, Taguig, Balic-Balic, and also Noveleta, San Francisco de Malabon, and Kawit in Cavite. Ultimately, it would rouse the whole nation from a state of colonial slumber to one of gallant revolutionary mode.


Pangkahalatang Pananaw

Ito ang perspektiba ni Dr. Zeus Salazar, historyador at antropologo mula sa Unibersidad ng Pilipinas, at pangunahing tagapagtaguyod ng Pantayong Pananaw, ukol sa Himagsikan.
Nagsimula ang rebolusyong Pilipino noong taong 1896. Noong Agosto 24, sinalakay ng mga Katipunero ang Maynila. Naging matagumpay sila sa simula. Ngunit hindi ito nagtagal. Mayroong tatlong pinapalagay na dahilan kung bakit natalo ang himagsikan. Ang unang dahilan ay ang pakadiskubre ni Gobernador Blanco sa planong pagsalakay. Ikalawa, ipinatapon ang 500 sundalo sa Mindanao. Ang huling dahilan ay ang hindi pagdating ng grupo ni Heneral Aguinaldo na dapat ay dumating mula Cavite.

Sa kabila ng kanilang hindi pagtatagumpay, ipinagpatuloy ni Bonifacio ang paglalaban. Hindi pinalampas ng mga Kastila ang mga pangyayari na hindi gumaganti. Maraming Pilipino ang nadakip. Isa na dito si Rizal. Pinatay siya sa Bagumbayan noong ika-30 ng Disyembre noong 1896. Habang lahat na ito ay nangyayari, naiisip ng mga kasapi ng puwersang mula sa Cavite, na hindi ang pamamalakad ni Bonifacio ang nais nilang sundin. Nais nilang lumikha ng estadong nakabatay sa ginamit na estado ng mga Kastila. Sa pagitan ng 22 Marso at 10 Mayo 1897, sa Tejeros, nawala ang estado ni Bonifacio (Haring Bayan/Republika ng Katagalugan). Pagkatapos agawin ang kapangyarihan noong 22 Marso 1897, inutos ni Aguinaldo na hulihin si Bonifacio at ipapatay ito dahil sa nakita niyang magiging balakid si Bonifacio sa kanyang mga plano. Sa Bundok Buntis pinaslang ang Supremo noong Mayo 10, 1897.

Nakipagkasunduan si Aguinaldo sa mga Kastila sa Pakto ng Biak-na-Bato. Kasama sa kasunduang ito ang pagpapatapon kina Aguinaldo sa Hongkong. Sumunod dito ang digmaang Amerikano at Kastila. Sa “pangako” ng konsul na Amerikano na kikilalanin di-umano ang kalayaan ng Pilipinas sa sandaling mapaalis ang mga Kastila, sumama si Aguinaldo sa mga puwersa ni Admiral Dewey sa pagsalakay nito sa Maynila. Inokupa ito ng Amerikano at dahil di tinupad nito ang “pangako,” sumiklab ang Digmaang Pilipino-Amerikano at nadakip si Aguinaldo sa kanyang pinagtaguan noong 1901.

******


Ang Katipunan at Supremo
Photo Art: JB




The Timeline of the Himagsikan 

January 1892 - Andres Bonifacio y Castro and others start planning for the Katipunan, coming up with a foundational (Catipunan) document that declares INDEPENDENCE from Spain not just as a goal but as a PROCLAMATION 

6-7 July 1982 - The Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan (KKK) was founded as a secret organization aimed at uniting the country and winning complete independence from Spain by Andres Bonifacio y de Castro, Deodato Arellano, Ladislao Diwa, Valentin Diaz, Jose Dizon, and Teodoro Plata.

December 1985 - Andres Bonifacio y de Castro becomes Supremo of the Katipunan; according to PioValenzuela, Bonifacio's assumption of KKK leadership, along with the earlier entry of Emilio Jacinto, is mainly responsible for the growth of the movement.

14 March 1896 - Supremo Andres Bonifacio inducts Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy into the Katipunan, the latter assuming the nom de guerre Magdalo. The initiation process took a particularly longer time than usual, as Aguinaldo keeps wrongly responding in a "Masonic" manner instead of in the Katipunan manner (Alvarez).

Middle-later March 1896 - Aguinaldo figures in an altercation with Ramon Padilla y Garcia, future martyr of Bagumbayan, who is supposedly boastful and uncouth; the Supremo intervenes, noting that it may be necessary "to defend the honor of our brother [Aguinaldo] here,"and sends an emissary to Padilla to ask him to apologize to Aguinaldo but if he refuses, they are to engage in a duel: Santiago notes Aguinaldo's nervousness over the prospect of a duel and feels his pounding heart but Padilla eventually apologizes.

1st Week April 1896 - Supremo, Pio Valenzuela, Emilio Jacinto, and Pantaleon Torres arrive at Noveleta, Cavite to establish a provincial council of the KKK, with Mariano "Mainam" Alvarez as president; to be known as Magdiwang, said chapter would later be acknowledged as responsible for successful campaigns against the enemy Spaniards by the time the Himagsikan breaks out. (Alvarez)

-- later, Santiago Alvarez accompanies the Supremo's group to the Aguinaldo yard to organize another KKK council, to be called Magdalo; on the evening just before the initiation ceremonies for new Katipunan recruits, shouts of "Fire, fire in Manila" are heard [later, the house of Bonifacio and others would ravaged by the fire]. (Alvarez)

Latter part of May 1896 - Bonifacio sends Pio Valenzuela as emissary to Jose Rizal, seeking advice as to whether to push through with the revolution.

- Valenzuela returns, talks with Bonifacio in private and the two thereafter keep their silence on the issue, triggering speculations that Rizal is against the Revolution (Alvarez).

21 Aug. 1896 - Bonifacio and Jacinto change the Katipunan code to numeric two days after the Spanish colonial authorities confirmed the existence of the Katipunan; as arrests continue, some 500 Katipuneros leave Balintawak for neighboring Kangkong.

August. 1896 - The Katipunan Supreme Council elects the leader of the revolutionary government:
Andres Bonifacio, Supremo/President
Teodoro Plata, Secretary of War
Emilio Jacinto, Secretary of State
Aguedo del Rosario, Secretary of Interior
Briccio Pantas, Secretary of Justice
Enrique Pacheco, Secretary of Finance.
(This election would be recorded in the February 8, 1897 issue of the Spanish-American publication La Ilustracion Española y Americana about the Philippine revolution. The article featured an engraved portrait of "Andres Bonifacio, Titulado 'Presidente' de la Republica Tagala," clad in a dark suit and white tie. Nineteenth century Spanish historian Jose M. del Castillo also document the first national elections in his 1897 writing "El Katipunan" or "El Filibusterismo en Filipinas.")  

24 Aug. 1896 - Katipuneros arrive at the barn of Melchora Aquino for their hurried National Assembly, with Supremo Andres Bonifacio and members of the Supreme Council (Kataastaasang Kapulungan), heads of the supramunicipal (sangunian) and chapter (balangay) units of the Katipunan in attendance; American colonial military historian John R. M. Taylor will later come to the conclusion that the Katipunan was the first national government of the Philippines, writing that Bonifacio turned the Katipunan "lodges into battalions, his grandmasters into captains, and the supreme council of the Katipunan" into a revolutionary body fighting for independence against colonial Spain.

KKK Logo (art rendering)
Photo Art: JB
25 Aug. 1896 - Revolutionary Filipinos led by Bonifacio win the first skirmish of the Himagsikan against colonial Spain, forcing the retreat of Spanish civil guards and infantrymen who opened fire at the Katipuneros in their temporary headquarters at the barn of Melchora Aquino in Caloocan.
26 Aug. 1896 - Bonifacio unfurls the Katipunan flag in Balintawak five (5) days after the Spaniards ascertained the existence of the KKK.

27 Aug. 1896 - Katipuneros led by the Supremo proceed from Marikina to Hagdang Bato. (NHI/NHCP)

28 Aug. 1896 - Bonifacio issues a manifesto setting August 29 as the start of the general uprising against Spain. (NHI/NHCP)

29-30 Aug. 1896 - The Katipuneros led by its Supremo Bonifacio, start the general uprising against Spain midnight of this day, a Saturday, with its first offensive attacking an isolated colonial garrison in Luzon; Aguinaldo's group from Cavite fails to arrive as planned and the initial major salvo is unsuccessful (Salazar).

30 Aug. 1896 - Spanish Governor-General Blanco declares the state of war and martial law in eight provinces: Manila, Bulacan, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Laguna, Cavite, and Batangas.


Continuation of the Himagsikan Timeline until the crime of the assassination of the Supremo (according to Apolinario Mabini) was perpetuated by Aguinaldo's camp:

5 September 1896 - Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, mayor of Kawit wins a signal victory in Imus against the Spanish forces led by Gen. Aquirre. From then, on he was known as Gen. Miong, hero to the Magdalos, if not Cavitenos.

19 Sept. 1896 - Antonio San Agustin Salazar, Filipino mason, confesses to knowing Bonifacio and would become one of the Bagumbayan Martyrs executed within a few months in connection with the Himagsikan--ushering in the "reign of terror" by the Spanish colonizers.

31 October 1896 - Aguinaldo issues two manifestos: (1) defines the revolution's aims as independence and "Liberty, Equality and Fraternity," and (2) calls for the formation of a central revolutionary government.

17 December 1896 - the Supremo arrives in Cavite, in response to the invitation of the Magdiwang KKK chapter in the province for the purpose of resolving their rivalry with the rival Magdalo chapter.

18 December 1896 - Bonifacio receives a warm welcome: riding, along with Sec. Emilio Jacinto, a luxurious horse-driven carriage, Col. Santos Nocon provides the honor guard of cavalry detachment; Magdalo secretary of war Daniel Tirona rides abreast on the right side of the Supremo and with his sword drawn, shouts "Long Live the Supremo" every time they pass by large crowds. (Alvarez)

- at the San Francisco de Malabon, a Magdiwang territory, some people in the crowd would shout "Long Live the King," with the Supremo shouting back "Long Live Motherland!" (Alvarez)

Circa Mid-to-Late Dec. 1896-- Baldomero Aguinaldo proposes the establishment of a revolutionary government, with Edilberto Evangelista submitting a constitution for the proposed government;the Supremo rejects the charter, finding it plagiarized. Those who favor the Katipunan argued that it has its own constitution & by-laws and that it is already a (revolutionary) government.

Post-Christmas 1896 - Smear propaganda against the Supremo circulates, including in the form of poison letters, in rebel towns particularly in San Francisco de Malabon where Bonifacio is greatly respected and admired, with Tirona as suspect: Bonifacio is villified for supposedly not believing in God; having low education; being mere lowly hired help in a firm dealing with tiles and with no other income; that he was an agent of the friars, with his sister being a paramour of a Spanish curate. (Alvarez)

- With some of the poison letters reaching the Supremo when a number of disbelieving recipients voluntarily turn over the poison letters to him, Bonifacio demands an explanation from Tirona at the home of Col. Nocon: Tirona haughtily & defiantly dismisses the accusations, prompting the Supremo to nearly shoot at Tirona if not for the intercession of some women present. (Alvarez)

29 December 1896 - Magdiwang and Magdalo leaders meet to discuss how to settle differences in revolutionary struggle and also a plot to snatch Rizal on the eve of his execution scheduled by the Spanish colonial authorities:

- exploration of unified leadership fails because of dispute over which leadership should prevail; Bonifacio asks Aguinaldo, secretary of the meeting, to record a motion forwarded re the framing of a constitution [despite the fact that the KKK already had one] but Aguinaldo asks that the matter be deferred at the moment; (Alvarez)

- plot to snatch Rizal fails because Paciano Rizal arrives and relays Jose Rizal's insistence that any rescue of him put at risk only one other life and no more (Alvarez). 

Circa early 1897 - Magdiwang faction building up secret enemies--Katipuneros who had been rebuffed or dismissed for insubordination, including Mariano Trias who refused to give up his private army. (Alvarez). 

January 1897 - Magdiwang is major Katipunan force in Cavite, with 3,400 guns compared to Magdalo's 2000 and had decidedly bigger territories covered. (Alvarez).

February 1897 - Supremo Andres Bonifacio, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, Mariano Trias and Procopio Bonifacio were poised to come to blows over defamatory idle talk but was prevented by Santiago "Apoy" Alvarez and Artemio Ricarte who manage to soothe the feelings of the four men. (Alvarez).

14 Feb. 1897 - The Spaniards begin their 52-day offensive at Cavite. Within days, the colonizers would begin to successively retake rebel towns under the Magdalo faction of the Katipunan but not so much the Magdiwang. The council and members of Magdalo would withdraw to San Francisco de Malabon and try to hold meetings in other Magdiwang territories (Delos Santos; Alvarez)

1st/2nd week of March 1897 - The Magdalo faction invites the Magdiwang for a general assembly purportedly to draw up some revolutionary strategy; Baldomero Aguinaldo, Emiliano Riego de Dios, Santiago, Daniel Tirona, Severino de las Alas, etc. from the Magdalo camp mainly prepare the arrangement. (Alvarez).

22 March 1897 - Instead of being a general assembly to map up some joint revolutionary strategy, the Tejeros Convention elects officers of a new revolutionary body in a scandalous and fraudulent fashion. The Supremo has agreed to the hasty elections provided everyone respects the results. "Elected" are the following:
Emilio Aguinaldo - President
Mariano Trias - Vice-President
Andrés Bonifacio - Director of Interior
Artemio Ricarte - Captain-General
Emiliano Riego de Dios - Director of War

-- Tirona scandalously objects to Bonifacio's election on supposed grounds of the latter's lack of qualifications, prodding (unsuccessfully) the crowd to elect lawyer Jose del Rosario instead. Bonifacio, as chairman of the Convention, declares the proceedings null and void on grounds of grave violations of the prior agreement to honor the electoral results.

-- (Alvarez's memoirs narrate the earlier unheeded warning given by Magdiwang Council Treasury Secretary Diego Mojica to the Supremo as to the use of pre-filled ballots)

23 March 1897 - Bonifacio, along with over 40 other Katipuneros, signs the Acta de Tejeros that nullifies the fraudulent and anomalous Tejeros Convention.

24 March 1897 - Aguinaldo takes his office as "President" in secret, with Catholic priest (under Spanish authority) Cenon Villafranca officiating, despite Bonifacio's nullification of the Tejeros polls in the latter's capacity as presiding officer and the manifestos and speeches circulated in connection with the scandalous elections. (Alvarez)

-- Artemio Ricarte y Garcia reluctantly also takes his oath of office after being elected the General-in-Chief of the Revolutionary Army during the anomalous Tejeros Convention. He insinuates that his eventual oath-taking came under a sort of duress: "That they kill me that same night, for the reasons above cited, or that they give me three hours, or at least one hour, to think over what I must necessarily do in order to accept said office; this second request was but a mere pretext, in order to enable me to absent myself from that Assembly. I obtained nothing of what I requested, because not even one of them gave me his assent."(Ricarte)

-- that same day, Ricarte makes a declaration stating his "great reluctance" over the oath-taking amidst what he described as "dirty or shady practices in the manner" of the Tejeros Convention elections and his doubts about his capacity to serve as chief general. (Alvarez's memoirs describes the oath-taking a having been done surreptitiously and with posted guards ready to eliminate unwanted Magdiwang figures who would try to break through the proceedings).

28 (or so) March 1897 - the Supremo leads the Magdiwangs and Gen. Apoy in intercepting the enemies who three days earlier had captured and occupied Imus: with the arrival of great enemy reinforcements, Bonifacio ordered a tactical retreat. (Alvarez)

3 April 1897 - the Supremo even fought in the bid to recapture Noveleta that had earlier fallen into Spanish hands, inflicting heavy losses to the enemy but still unable to dislodge them. (Alvarez)

Around 1st week April 1897 - Three of Magdalo's top officers--Tirona and his lawyer candidate, del Rosario, and Lt. Gen. Juan Cailles, surrender to the colonial Spanish authorities. (Alvarez)

7 April 1897 - the Supremo warmly welcomes Emilio and Baldomero Aguinaldo at his office at a friar estate in Naic, discussing the need to punish Tirona and Cailles who had betrayed the revolution by surrendering to the Spaniards; the Aguinaldos agree. (Alvarez)

Around 7- 14 April 1897 - for a week, the Aguinaldos would exhibit close cooperation and comradeship, leading to the agreement for the Magdiwang to lend guns to the Magdalos who volunteered to fight to enable the Magdiwang troops to briefly rest. Bonifacio blesses the plan, and even had his Balara contingent contribute to the gun loan (Alvarez)

Middle - end of April 1897 - with the Magdiwang guns in their hands, the Magdalos entrenched their positions and Aguinaldo consolidate his forces. (Alvarez)

15 April 1897 - Bonifacio appoints Jacinto as Supreme Commander of all revolutionary forces in Manila.

16 April 1897 - The Supremo writes Jacinto, ascribing the failure of the Katipunan in defending Cavite against Spanish troops to factionalism and relays the deceitfulness of Magdalo faction led by Capitan Aguinaldo in apparently scheming to abandon the Revolution and forge a deal with the enemy Spaniards.

-- Bonifacio adds that he needed to nullify all the resolutions that were adopted in the fraudulent and scandalously anomalous Tejeros Convention owing to the dirty tactics of Magdalo in the bid to discredit him and the Katipunan.

17 April 1897 - Aguinaldo forms his [nearly all-Caviteno] cabinet or officers of the "republic" (Alvarez):
Emilio Aguinaldo - President
Mariano Trias - Vice-President
Pascual Alvarez - Secretary of the Interior (Executive Offices)
Baldomero Aguinaldo - Secretary of Finance
Jacinto Lumbreras - Secretary of State
Severino de las Alas - Secretary of Justice
Mariano Alvarez - Secretary of Development
Emiliano Riego de Dios - Secretary of War
Artemio Ricarte - Captain General

19 April 1897 - The Supremo and other signatories sign the Naik Military Agreement declaring that several Filipino revolutionaries (referring to but not naming the camp of Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy) had committed treason against the nation and the revolution by negotiating for peace with the enemy Spaniards. They declare that they are not bound to recognize the authority of the traitors and that all revolutionary forces shall be unified under the command of Gen. Pio del Pilar.

24 April 1897 - Bonifacio confides his fear that his company seems to be in danger not only from the Spanish enemy but, also, from the local [Caviteno] revolutionary leaders in a letter to Jacinto. The Supremo also writes about the detestable acts of treason/collaboration with the enemy Spaniards that was engaged in by certain Magdalo members, partisans of Aguinaldo such as Tirona, Mtro. De Guerra, Jose del Rosario, Jose Caelles, and "almost all Tanza residents along with the priest there," as well as the fraud and anomaly that characterized the Tejeros Convention.

27 April 1897 - "President" Aguinaldo sternly orders that the Bonifacio brothers be seized and brought before him dead or alive. Assigned were Col. Agapito Bonzon (alias Intong/Yntong), Felipe Topacio, and Jose Paua/Pawa (alias Insik Pawa) who, along with some men, leave Naic for Indang in the afternoon. (Alvarez) [Note: Other sources place this day of order as April 26]

-- Reaching Indang, Bonzon and company apparently survey the size of Bonifacio's forces. They are warmly greeted by the Supremo who even address them as "my brethren" before they leave, claiming they are only looking for enemy trails. (Alvarez)

Supremo Bonifacio at kapatid na si Procopio
Photo Art: JB

28 April 1897 - The Supremo and brother Procopio are treacherously abducted by the forces of Bonzon and Paua who return in the morning. They violently attack the Bonifacio brothers and men in a surprise move that instantly kills Ciriaco Bonifacio. (Alvarez). [Note: Other reports will point to the afternoon of April 27 as the time of the Bonifacio abduction].


-- Bonzon shoots the Supremo in the arm. Paua then moves to kill the Katipunan Supreme President by stabbing him in the throat with a dagger but one of Bonifacio's men plead that his life be taken instead. (Alvarez) [According to Julio Nakpil, it was Lazaro who stabbed the Supremo]

-- Procopio is badly beaten; Andres Bonifacio's wife, Gregoria de Jesus, is also abducted and brought to Naic, with the weakened Supremo brought in a hammock. His wife is raped by Yntong. (Court martial record tell of unsuccessful rape; but recent sources tell rape did occur, such as Ocampo, cited in Duka).

-- The Bonifacio brothers are taken to a cramped prison without the right to accept visitors. They are also negligibly fed. (Alvarez; Duka)

29 April 1897 - Several Magdiwang leaders meet at a house in Naic to discuss a plan to rescue the Supremo; Generals "Mainam" and his son "Apoy" were not invited because the former was included in the Magdalo line up as welfare director as the latter was said to be opposed to any move that would cause civil war. The formation of a bolo regiment to pretend to reinforce the Naic estate house guards but would suddenly and simultaneously strike at a given signal is approved. The plan fails to materialize because of the unexpected Spanish attack on Indang and Naic. (Alvarez)

30 April 1897 - Luciano San Miguel tells Apoy of news circulating among the military top brass of Aguinaldo's "Republic" about the general objection among the revolutionary government's chiefs and military officers to the arrest of the Supremo. (Alvarez)

*******


Continuation of the Revolutionary Timeline (with the emerging imperialist Bald Eagle nation in the picture):

01 MAY 1898 - The American squadron under the command of Commodore George Dewey engages and destroys the Spanish fleet under Admiral Patricio Montojo.

04 May 1898 - The Filipino revolutionary committee in Hongkong arrives at the decision that Emilio Aguinaldo should accept the invitation of the Americans to return to the Philippines and renew the independentist struggle against colonial Spain.

    -- Spanish Governor-General Basilio Agustin tries to court the rebelling Filipinos during the Philippine American War by issuing a decree establishing the Consultative Assembly of the Philippines made up of 18 Filipinos headed by Pedro A. Paterno.

****18 May 1898 - United Stats President President William McKinley gives a hint of American imperialistic designs in issuing “Instruction,” in which he says the Americans came to the Philippines not to “wage war upon them (the Filipinos), nor upon any part or faction among them, but to protect them in their homes, in their employments, and in their personal and religious rights.”

****19 May 1898 - Some 10 months before the American imperialist forces formally invaded the Philippines, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo arrives at Cavite province aboard the revenue cutter McCulloch; Aguinaldo will soon confer with Admiral George Dewey to forge an alliance against Spain, and later saying that the American admiral has categorically stated that the United States will recognize Philippine Independence as it has no need for colonies.

21 May 1898 - A proclamation extolling the people to unite and renew the fight for the vindication of the Philippines.

24 May 1898 -- In Cavite, Emilio Aguinaldo proclaims the establishment of a dictatorial government during the Second Phase of the Philippine Revolution.

****27 May 1898 - The camp of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, leader of the Philippine Revolution against Spain (since May 1897) receives the first consignment of arms in Cavite from American consul Rounseville Wildman as part of the parties' unwritten deal forged in Hong Kong during the former's unsuccessful trip to meet United States Commodore George Dewey; Wildman will never deliver the second arms shipment to Aguinaldo, paid for with P67,000, and within nine months, the US will embark on its imperialistic invasion of the Philippines.

31 May 1898 - Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo elects this day as the beginning of renewed uprising following his camp's return from exile following the Truce of Biak na Bato earlier forged by the revolutionary leaders with colonial authorities during the Philippine Revolution.

01 JUNE 1898 - The Spaniards in Calamba, Laguna surrender to Paciano Rizal after three days of conflict.

- Aguinaldo issues a decree providing for the trial of all kinds of crimes, esp. treason and espionage, under competent military tribunals, with sentences requiring his approval, in the bid to suppress all disorder.

        **- American Arthur MacArthur, appointed Brigadier-General of Volunteers, receives an order to proceed to the Philippines.

02 June 1898 - Spanish Gen. Leopoldo Garcia leads 900 infantry troops and 80 artillerymen in bringing their arms and ammunition to capitulate to the Filipino forces in Cavite.

03 June 1898 - The Spanish defenders of Calamba surrender to the Filipino forces under Paciano Rizal after three days of fighting.

    ****- American Consul Rounsevelle Wildman at Hongkong admits that on this day the Filipinos have entrusted P47,000 to him for the purchase of munitions.

06 June 1898 - With his troops having surrounded the City of Manila, General Aguinaldo demands the honorable surrender of Spanish Governor-General Basilio Agustin who refuses.

    -- Apolinario Mabini submits to Aguinaldo's revolutionary government his "constitutional program of the Philippine Republic.

09 June 1898 - The Filipinos seize control of Pampanga province from the Spaniards.

10 June 1898 - Around 5,000 Spanish defenders of Batangas province surrender to the Filipino revolutionaries.

- Aguinaldo addresses an appeal to the United States President protesting a London press report as to the supposed American intent to sell the Philippines to a European power to the effect that the U.S. intends to sell the Philippine Islands to a European power and the probable abandonment of the Philippines to the tyranny of Spain. He asks that the country be left free and independent "even if you make peace with Spain."

- During the Philippine Revolution against Spain, United States Consul-General E. Spencer Pratt, congratulates Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo for his "recent military achievements" and claims that his arrangement for the latter's meeting with US Admiral Spencer Dewey is right.

***12 June 1898 - Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo  proclaims the Independence of the Philippines "under the protection of the Powerful and Humanitarian Nation," that is the United States of America and thereby ceasing "to have any allegiance to the Crown of Spain" and unfurling a blue, red and yellow flag partly inspired by the Stars-and Stripes banner of the US.

- Apolinario Mabini arrives in Cavite while carried in a hammock and begins serving as trusted adviser of Gen. Aguinaldo.

****16 June 1898 - During the Philippine Revolution against Spain, American Consul Oscar F. William sends a dispatch to Secretary Wm. R. Day reporting that the Filipino Revolutionists have defeated the colonial forces at practically all encounters and have taken control of the northern provinces and the entire bay coast, save for the city of Manila.

20 June 1898 - Gen. Aguinaldo issues rules pertaining to the holding of junta and council sessions and the organization of police forces and tribunals, civil records, registration, property, and the census.

21 June 1898 - Gen. Manuel Tinio and Col. Tecson subdue The Spanish garrison at San Isidro in Nueva Ecija province falls to the forces of Gen. Manuel Tinio and Col. Tecson, yielding some 1,050 rifles and 500,000 cartridges.

-- President Aguinaldo passes the Land Tenancy Law.

23 June 1898 - Following the advice of Mabini, Aguinaldo decrees the change of his government from dictatorial to one that is revolutionary.

--President Aguinaldo also decrees the establishment of a Revolutionary Committee abroad, which will ultimately be based in Hong Kong and empowered with to take charge of all overseas consular, diplomatic, and publicity activities.

24 June 1898 - Mabini issues his “True Decalogue” that sets ten general guidelines of human conduct.

****25 June 1898 - American Consul General at Hong Kong Rounsevelle Wildman foxily writes Philippine President Emilio Aguinaldo convincing him to stand shoulder to shoulder with what will be the future invading American forces, saying that he has supposedly "vouched for [Aguinaldo's] honesty and earnestness of purpose to the President of the United States and to [the American] people."

27 June 1898 - The siege of Baler church in Tayabas, Quezon is begun by Filipino soldiers, with the Spanish defenders barricading themselves for eleven months.

**--Third American expedition sails for Manila under the command of Major-General Wesley Merritt and Brigadier-General Arthur MacArthur.

29 June 1898 - Mariano Ponce arrives at Tokyo in his capacity as Philippine representative and is warmly welcomed Tokyo as Philippine representative and is welcomed by important Japanese personalities such as the Premier who are sympathetic with the cause of with Philippine Independence.

    **30 June 1898 - Responding to Dewey's call for reinforcements, the First U.S. expedition commanded by Brigadier General Thomas M. Anderson arrives in Manila.

****04 JULY 1898 - United States Gen. Thomas M. Anderson writes to President Aguinaldo asking him for cooperation in the American war with Spain, deceptively expressing supposed American sympathy with the people of the Philippine Islands; in seven months' time, the United States will reveal its true, sinister imperialistic design on the Philippines, starting the bloody Filipino-American War, with Gen. Anderson seeing action in the 1899 Battle of Manila where he captured Pasay and afterwards, leading his division in minor engagements at Santana, San Pedro and Guadalupe.

****06 July 1898 - In what will prove to be a most stupid military decision, Dictator Emilio Aguinaldo of the fledgling Philippine Republic will assure imperialist American Gen. Thomas M. Anderson that he has already ordered his "people not to interfere" with the American forces who has been entering the Southeast Asian archipelago during the Spanish-American War.

09 July 1898 - Gen. Thomas M. Anderson communicates from the Philippines to the United States Adjutant-General in Washington, D.C. that he foresees a possible conflict with Filipino forces during the Philippine Revolution against Spain and the Spanish-American War--this as only three days earlier, Philippine President Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo had informed Anderson that he has already ordered his soldiers "not to interfere" with the American forces who have been entering the country following American officers' deceptive assurances that the US is in sympathy with the Filipinos.

****14 July 1898 - PresidentAguinaldo of the still-in-revolution Philippine Republic writes to gulliby ask United States Admiral George Dewey to forward to Washington his June 18 and 23 decrees establishing a revolutionary dictatorial government to continue the fight for independence against Spain, further stating that "the desires on this government are to remain always in friendship with the great North American nation, to which we are under many obligations."

-- on this same day, the 4th United States Military Expedition to the Philippines sails for Manila under Maj. Gen. Elwell S. Otis, in apparent preparation for the imperialistic American invasion of the Philippines.

****15 July 1898 --Aguinaldo appoints his government's first Cabinet more than a month after declaring Philippine Independence under the protection of the US, supposedly "the Powerful and Humanitarian Nation," as he declares in a proclamation that the distinction between members and non-members of the Katipunan no longer exists, with the Philippines being the true Katipunan.

--The fourth expedition of American volunteers sails for Manila, under the command of Major-General E.S. Otis.

16 July 1898 - Gen. Aguinaldo issues a decree imposing taxes on municipal and provincial councils and popular assemblies.

-- From his Spanish-American War Flagship “Olympia” docked at Cavite, American Rear Admiral George Dewey writes to Gen. Aguinaldo, attaching a copy of a letter from the French Consul at Manila with regards the Philippine Navy's seizure of the steamer Compañia de Filipinas.

**17 July 1898 - General Francis V. Greene’s The second expeditionary forces of the looming 20th century imperialist nation, the United States, under Gen. Francis V. Greene arrive and land at Parañaque, located midway between Manila and Cavite.

18 July 1898 --U.S. Consul R. Wildman writes Acting U.S. Secretary of State J.B. Moore from Hong Kong, informing him that he has suggested to Aguinaldo the establishment of a dictatorial government which could later be the nucleus of a representative form of government similar to that of the U.S.

****20 July 1898 - United States Assistant Secretary of State William Rufus Day writes a letter supposedly rebuking American Consul-General E. Spencer Pratt in Singapore for "undiplomatically" allowing Philippine President Aguinaldo to believe that the U.S. Government would recognize the independence of the Southeast Asian archipelago after Spain is defeated and on condition that the Filipinos help the US in the Spanish-American War; truth is, days or weeks earlier, a number of other American officials, including Gen. Thomas Anderson, Consul General in Hong Kong Rounsevelle Wildman, and even Admiral George Dewey took turns deceiving Aguinaldo into thinking the US will honor Philipine Independence

21 July 1898 - Felipe Agoncillo, future Minister Plenipotentiary of the fledgling Philippine Republic, writes Mabini, key adviser of Aguinaldo, expressing his apprehensions over the supposed "alliance" with the Americans in apparent reference to Aguinaldo's (unofficial and gullible) arrangement with certain United States officials to cooperate in the war against Spain and in return, America is supposed to honor the independence of the Filipino nation.

**23 July 1898 -The sixth imperialist American expedition sails for Manila with eight companies of the First South Dakota Volunteer Infantry under the command of Brigadier-General H.G. Otis, U.S.V.

****24 July 1898 - After being led to believe through verbal promises by United States officials [the consuls in Singapore and Hong Kong, Admiral George Dewey and Gen. Thomas Anderson] that America is an ally, President Aguinaldo writes to Gen. Anderson of his people's expectations that while foreign powers have not yet acknowledged the Philipppine Republic, "the great North American nation, which struggled first for its independence, and afterward for the abolition of slavery and is now actually struggling for the independence of Cuba, would look upon [Filipino assertion of sovereignty] with greater benevolence than any other nation."

**25 July 1898 - Gen. Wesley Merritt of the Imperialist United States Army arrives in Manila.

    **31 July 1898 - Brigadier-General Arthur MacArthur arrives in Manila and is assigned to command the Second Brigade of the First Division of the U.S. Army.





1 AUGUST 1898- The Act proclaiming Philippine Independence is proclaimed in Bacoor, Cavite during the first convention of town/municipal presidents that included representatives from Tanguay, Nueva Ecija, Laguna, Morong, Pampanga, Manila, Tarlac, Bulacan, Batangas, Bataan, Infanta, Union, Pangasinan, Zambales, Tayabas, and Mindoro; ironically, as the act declares that the Philippine Revolution against Spain is a rational and legitimate action of the Filipino people, who are valiantly defending their national pride and dignity, and asks all foreign governments to recognize the Filipino nation and its sovereignty, during the very same day, the troops of the imperialist United States earlier freely allowed to enter the country (by a gullible Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo) are organized into a division commanded by Gen. Thomas Anderson, later to take part in the undemocratic American invasion of the Philippines and commence the bloody Filipino-American War.

****03 August 1898 - In a speech at Kawit in Cavite province Pres. Aguinaldo pleads with local officials to keep unity, peace, and upright conduct; the appeal comes amidst apprehensions expressed by Felipe Agoncillo and Apolinario Mabini, Aguinaldo's diplomatic official and key adviser, respectively, over the former's supposed "alliance" with the Americans, with some Filipino soldiers already thinking at that point they they might need to fight a war with the pale-skinned US forces.

****04 August 1898 - American Consul Oscar F. Williams cables U.S. Secretary of State William R. Day to report that he has tried to convince Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo that American rule over the Philippines will supposedly bring greater honor, progress, and profit to the natives compared to any scheme the Filipino leader and his advisers can ever devise, adding that he is on better terms with Aguinaldo than the American military commanders are.

****06 August 1898 - Generals Artemio Ricarte and Pio del Pilar express their misgivings to Aguinaldo about the true nature of American policy towards the Philippines; this, as Aguinaldo issues a proclamation to the United States and all foreign governments explaining the nature and scope of the Revolutionary Government and the proclamation of country's independence by provincial representatives, begging for the protection of all nations of the civilized world and beseeching their formal recognition of the state of belligerence and the independence of the Philippines.” 

07 August 1898 - American military officers Admiral Dewey and General Merritt, through the British Vice Consul, H.A. Ramsden, issue a joint ultimatum to the Spanish authorities stating that “the land and naval forces of the United States would commence operations against the defenses of Manila at any time after the expiration of the forty-eight hours from the hour of receipt by you of this communication.”

****11 August 1898 - The camp of Philippine Aguinaldo, which has already seized control of most of the archipelago away from the Spanish colonial forces, finally realizes that the Yankees are preparing to take the city of Manila as Filipino forces besieging Intramuros notice a general movement among American militia units.

****13 August 1898 - The "Mock Battle of Manila" occurs between Spanish and American forces, a day after the signing of the Protocol of Peace, as part of the two powers' imperialistic, shoddy and detestably anti-democratic deal to transfer Spanish colonial possessions to the United States, thus depriving Filipinos of their rightful revolutionary victory against colonial Spain.

 ******

Postscript: 
Amidst everything, Filipinos should take pride in the fact that despite the tragedy of the terrible crimes done to the Gat Andres Bonifacio, the Philippine Himagsikan did win. Our people did win the revolution, as emphasized by historian Jaime Veneracion. Despite the tragedy of the Katipunan Supremo and despite the stupidity of Gen. Aguinaldo before the Americans, we won the Revolution.

Kahit na ang tusong si Aguinaldo ay nalinlang ng mga mapuputlang opisyales ng Kalbong Agila na nagbigay daan sa kabulastugang Mock Battle of Manila, napasok pa rin ng Pilipinong pwersa ang Manila. Yes, Aguinaldo was so pathetically stupid that he delayed the attack on Intramuros, heeding the American general’s call to wait for them. Yet, even we were able to defeat the enemy Spaniards throughout the archipelago.  In fact, as early as June 16, American Consul Oscar F. William sends a dispatch to Secretary Wm. R. Day reporting that the Filipino Revolutionists have defeated the colonial forces at practically all encounters and have taken control of the northern provinces and the entire bay coast, save for the city of Manila.

Iyon nga lang, sa pagpasok ng  Kalbong Agilang mandaragit ay panibagong madugong yugto na naman sa kasaysayan ng ating pagkabansa ang ating mararanasan--ang Digmaang Pilipino-Amerikano (1899-1914).


_____________


References:


114th Anniversary of the Battle of Pinaglabanan, San Juan del Monte. Manila Bulletin. http://www3.mb.com.ph/articles/274774/114th-anniversary-battle-pinaglabanan-san-juan-del-monte

Chua, Michael Xiao. Walking History: WE WON the REVOLUTION. http://blog-by-taga-ilog-news.blogspot.com/2011/08/walking-history-we-won-revolution.html

Documents of the Katipunan: Foundational documents . http://kasaysayan-kkk.info
/docs.casaysayan.htm


Donato, Tony. "Ang Maigsing Buhay ni Emilio Jacinto." http://banlawkasaysayan.multiply.com/photos/album/9/Ang_Maigsing_Buhay_ni_Emilio_Jacinto_ni_ka_tony

Duka, C. Struggle for Freedom. 2008 ed.Rex Bookstore. 

Guerrero, Milagros, Emmanuel Encarnacion & Ramon Villegas. Andres Bonifacio & the 1896 Revolution
http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-n-a/article.php?i=5&subcat=13


 Quizon, Mona Liza. "Sancho Valenzuela: Hero of the 1896 Revolution". National Historical Commission of the Philippines. http://www.nhi.gov.ph//index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=544&Itemid=3 

Salazar, Zeus A. Kasaysayan ng Kapilipinuhan: Bagong Balangkas. Lungsod ng Quezon. 2004 Disyembre. http://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=9&ved=0CFMQFjAI&url=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.bagongkasaysayan.multiply.multiplycontent.com%2Fattachment%2F0%2FRvJZtwoKCsQAABfjrrM1%2FZeus%2520Salazar%2520-%2520Balangkas%2520ng%2520Kasaysayan%25202004.pdf%3Fnmid%3D55581663&ei=nBfwTKeUHIGgvgPo1qiHDg&usg=AFQjCNFY-7Ih-iNxGvjWhtjgIoebyl9cyA&sig2=zVIiGiBQyP0ap9pEjukt9Q 

Revolucion filipina (1896-1898). Museo Oriental de Valladolid Site. http://www.museo-oriental.es/ver_didactica.asp?clave=138&loc=0 

San Juan. http://www.visitmyphilippines.com/index.php?title=SanJuan&Page=1&pid=2575

San Juan Celebrates 100th  Year  As  Independent Municipality. http://www.newsflash.org/2004/02/ht/ht008389.htm

 The First Battle of the Katipunan. http://www.nhi.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=80&Itemid=10 

The Tragedy of the Katipunan: The Supremo's Assassination-cum-Execution (Bonifacio Series IV). http://jesusabernardo.newsvine.com/_news/2011/05/10/6619505-the-tragedy-of-the-katipunan-the-supremos-assassination-cum-execution-bonifacio-series-iv 

Turn-of-the-20th Century Timeline of Gen. Aguinaldo's Stupidity a.k.a. Imperialist American Deception. http://jesusabernardo.newsvine.com/_news/2010/08/31/5017488-turn-of-the-20th-century-timeline-of-gen-aguinaldos-stupidity-aka-imperialist-american-deception

2 comments:

Cita Garcia said...

I am the direct granddaughter of General Guillermo Masangkay, one of the closest confidante of Andres Bonifacio.Tehre are some mistakes I found in the article. for one Dr. Pio Valenzuela is not a hero in fact he is even a traitor. Please read the book, "Cry of Balintawak, not Pugad Lawin" written by my sister, Dr. soledad Borromeo-Buhler, Professor at UP, University of Berkeley, Alameda and UCLA.Cita Borromeo-Garcia citagrc@yahoo.com

Jesusa Bernardo said...

maraming, maraming salamat sa interes at komento, bb. cita. i.email ho kita.

ang tungkol kay pio valenzuela kung bayani nga ba o hindi ay isang subjective na bagay, o kaya ay debatable. oo nga at ito ay sumuko nang maaga at mukhang nagsalita, subali't palagay ko kung titingnan natin holistically ay nakaganda ang kanyang ginawa para sa pagtatama o ikalalalim ng kaalaman natin sa kasaysayan ng katipunan. dahil insider siya ay marami siyang naisulat o nasabi ukol kina gat bonifacio at rizal at iba pa.

kung pagbabasehan natin ang pag.capitulate sa foreign power, sa totoo ay halos lahat ng nabuhay na katipunero ay mga traydor, kahit pa nga si malvar dahil in the end ay sumuko rin sila. kung kaya't minabuti kong luwagan ang basehan ng kung sino ang mga bayani, huwag lamang ang mamamatay bayani na tulad ni aguinaldo.

napapagusapan namin iyang aklat ng iyon kapatid at napakaganda at mahalaga. sa aking facebook account ay na.link ko na ho yata ang kanyang libro at na.embed na sa aking today in history blog kung hindi ako nagkakamali. ang mga datos ko dito ay kinuha ko sa iba't ibang sources kabilang ang NHI, kung kung minsan ay hindi tugma sa mga gawa tulad ng sa inyong kapatid.

doon sa orihinal na 2 artikulo ko (na pinagbasehan nito) ay mas makikita ninyo siguro ang mga sources. eto ho:

The Tragedy of the Katipunan: The Supremo's Assassination-cum-Execution (Bonifacio Series IV). http://jesusabernardo.newsvine.com/_news/2011/05/10/6619505-the-tragedy-of-the-katipunan-the-supremos-assassination-cum-execution-bonifacio-series-iv

Turn-of-the-20th Century Timeline of Gen. Aguinaldo's Stupidity a.k.a. Imperialist American Deception. http://jesusabernardo.newsvine.com/_news/2010/08/31/5017488-turn-of-the-20th-century-timeline-of-gen-aguinaldos-stupidity-aka-imperialist-american-deception

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